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Somalia is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to the north, the Gulf of Aden to the east, Kenya to the south, and the Somali Sea to the west. The country has a population of over 12 million people, making it the most populous country in Africa.
Somalia has been in a state of civil war since 1991, when the government was overthrown after a long, brutal struggle. The war has continued intermittently ever since, with various factions fighting for control of the country. In recent years, the war has taken a more brutal turn, with al-Shabab, a Somali Islamist group, becoming increasingly involved.
More than 20 years of war have left Somalia in shambles. More than two million people have been displaced, and the country has been plagued by famine and disease. The war has also created a humanitarian crisis, with more than 5 million people in need of aid.
The war in Somalia is one of the longest and deadliest in history. It started as a civil war between the government and the Islamic Courts Union, but quickly turned into a conflict between different factions of the government and the Islamist militants.
Colonial History- Who is Somalia at war with?
When European colonial powers met to divide Africa, the area now known as Somalia was divided among the British, Italians, and French. Somalia gained independence only after being granted internal autonomy following World War II. Even so, Somalia had to integrate between two territories ruled by different colonial powers.
Somalia and Kenya had border disputes in 1963, and Ethiopia and Somalia had border disputes in 1964. This second disagreement resulted in armed conflict. These wars were motivated by Somali irredentism, or the desire to “rejoin lost territories to the motherland.” The notion that Somalis should live under a single political jurisdiction is a European type of nationalism.
Three conflicts occurred during Somalia War between 1977 and 1991: war with Ethiopia (1977-78); civil war in the north-west between the military and the Somali National Movement (SNM) over control of that region; and internal conflict between government forces and clan-based liberation movements (1989-1990). After nine years of civilian rule, a military coup in 1969 installed Siad Barre in power.